The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Combating Crime in Sierra Leone

Introduction

 I.C.Ts is essential on the globe generally speaking and creating countries to become specific. I.C.Ts have designed considerable affect in several regions In terms of countrywide enhancement. Once we Consider the financial system of your state, education and learning, religion, Social Science and Technology we could see which i.C.Ts have contributed a great deal in improving upon these parts. You could are likely to ponder how but when you read alongside you can have an understanding of and find out the significance of I.C.Ts in establishing international locations (Johnson, 2008) .https://infomaatic.com/

 I.C.Ts consult with systems that provide usage of information through telecommunications. It is similar to facts engineering (I.T), but focuses primarily on conversation technologies. This contains the online world, wireless networks, mobile devices, and other communication mediums (Marke, 2003).

 I.C.Ts are worried generally with data administration that is, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics based communication of Laptop or computer and telecommunication as its main fields (Julliet, 2001).

 The Function of ICTs in Organisations

 If any Firm much like the Criminal Investigation Office (CID) in Sierra Leone is always to grow and build then there needs to be powerful and productive interaction inside the organisation. Facts whether it’s pictorial, textual, penned or vocal kind by which an facts is interaction from top to base or maybe the reviser with the helpful managing on the Group the use of I. C. T. is essential since it causes it to be super easy throughout the use of cellphone, computer systems as well as other units that we use to speak info is because of The point that we have what we phone I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

 • By means of I. C.Ts. technological innovation user may have easy access to information and facts via an e-mail by means of by this it help you save time of your workers just through by visiting his/her e-mail tackle he/she’s going to understand about the newest development in Prison Investigation Department, with out intending to his/her or manager for information and facts;

 • I. C. Ts. have performed very very important job in social media marketing functions and the usage of internet over time and it continues to be producing positive influence inside our society today. Devoid of I.C.Ts;

 • I.C.Ts. have designed it possible for an individual in one country to purchase products from A different region, electronically from the second and buy it electronically in a 3rd.
 I. C.Ts. Have changed the planet industrial revolution kinds within the mine tenth century and this variation is permanent, mainly because it produces new financial functions, new relations of output, new political forces, new work, and new outlook of lifetime;
 • I.C.Ts. have performs excellent role while in the health sector of Prison Investigation

 Department by improving on healthcare recognition shipping and public consciousness on critical health situation. As a result of I. C. Ts. you can should be able to have entry to medical details and skilled specialists can cut down suffering and will save lives (Peter, 2005).

 Historical background of your (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

 The Sierra Leone Police Drive is the brainchild from the British government. Its inception dates way back to to 1808 when Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. Within the absence of a formal organized entire body to help keep the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates ended up appointed by Magistrates to return to Sierra Leone to keep up legislation and buy. Concerning 1863-1888 the then Law enforcement Pressure had metamorphosed to be able to address the unsightly incidents, which were being rearing their heads Specially throughout the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances resulted in the development of law enforcement together the frontier. In 1889, consequently, the law enforcement was divided- army and frontier duties had been taken around from the Frontier Law enforcement white Civilian duties were being remaining Using the Frontier Law enforcement subsequently turned known as the Court docket Messenger Force, and had been designed liable for the colony.

 On the 27th Oct 1894, within the Royal Gazette of that date, the civil police from the colony got the designation “The Sierra Leone Police Force” – (S. L.P.File) that has remained unchanged to today. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the military to control the police drive, Together with the rank of superintendent and Mr. Brooks, a metropolitan police officer, was appointed inspector of law enforcement. In 1909 superintendent Brooks was appointed the primary commissioner of police.

 No real considerable strides occurred from the power, right up until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Superintendent of Police from Nigerian, took in excess of command of the drive as Commissioner of Law enforcement form Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The power on the power was three hundred, which include two (two) expatriates, the Commissioner along with the Assistant Commissioner and Africans crammed the rest another ranks. The severe civil disturbances led to the short introduction on the Riot Squad which was subsequently properly trained to incorporate additional riots. Mr. Ward raised the power to 600 which established a welcome and overdue increase in advertising possibilities. For the first time Africans had been promoted to your rank of Assistant superintendent of Law enforcement (A. S. P) as well as a fleet of autos comprising vehicles, lorries, motor cycle and bicycles was afterwards attained.

 He started out the proper training faculty at Port Loko in 1944, which was afterwards transferred into the naval camp at hasting where by it stands to at the present time. He also commenced community communications in between law enforcement departments and finally swap this by a police wi-fi conversation process which nowadays go over The complete nation. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who raised the power to one,000, sent the primary African sub-inspector to teach a Henden which continued thenceforth. He released the initial good Pressure STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the law enforcement FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took above and wasted no time in getting policing towards the provinces which resulted in its expansion. He affiliated the law enforcement power to Intercontinental Police Organization (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a procedure in which each and every police officer was taught not duties no matter what portion with the pressure he could possibly be hooked up to.

 Amongst 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh grew to become the first Sierra Leonean Commissioner of Police and underneath his Management a police Act was established in 1964 which was intended to consolidate and amend the guidelines referring to the Sierra Leone law enforcement drive that is, the protection of lifetime and residence, the avoidance and detection of criminal offense along with the apprehension of offenders between 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith turned the 2nd Sierra Leone commissioner of police who led the power via Republic in 1971.

 The uniform at the moment consisted of gray shorts and grey jacket with black shoes and cummerbund. Segment 174 with the Sierra Leone Structure of 1978 adjusted the traditional job of the pressure with the appointment on the 10 Commissioners of Law enforcement, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of several 7 (7) appointed members of parliament by The chief president, thus politicizing the role in the law enforcement force.

 Amongst 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson turns into the first inspector – General of police. Around the 1st of January, 1987, the power was re- divisionalized into law enforcement divisions each division becoming represented by letters, ranging from “A” to “N” and each division commanded by a Main police officer [C. P. O]. These were being additional sub-divided into law enforcement Districts and put under the command on the officer commanding districts [o/c] who may be a Deputy Superintendent of law enforcement or Assistant Superintendent of Police (A.S.P.).

 In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, inside of a bid to redeem The nice image of your Sierra Leone Law enforcement Pressure which had critically dented by politics, the British Authorities sent Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Superintendent of Law enforcement to restructure the power. A number of police programs were being then launched into your curriculum so as to boost the power in policing a contemporary democratic Culture schooling courses such as Junior and Senior Management Classes Trainers class, criminal investigation Section system often known as the Yorkshire Class was released which went a great distance to restructure the law enforcement.

 The democratically elected Federal government of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the products and services with the British Governing administration to assist further more restructure the Sierra Leone Law enforcement Drive. The British Authorities responded by sending a staff often known as the Commonwealth Law enforcement Growth Job Drive. which was headed with the Inspector-Normal of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Under the dynamic Management on the British born Inspector- Basic of law enforcement, the Sierra Leone law enforcement drive is little by little regained the confidence of the public through the modify management under the new restructured program, so which the drive could become “Pressure Once and for all’ which is its noted for right now. (Sierra Leone Police Prospectus 2014).

 Actions of Felony Investigation Division (CID)

 The next are the functions untaken by CID with the Sierra Leone Law enforcement:

 Documentation

 Crimes scene investigators are charged Along with the accountability of formally documenting the crime scene. This documentation is normally permanent and constitutes the Formal document in the investigation. It can be forwarded to officers and legislation enforcement agencies for additional use and investigation. Documentation features photograph, diagrams and sketches, and penned notes. At this time, the crimes scene investigation typically make some sort of Original interpretation of your proof at hand and document the actions taken from the investigators within the actions taken because of the investigators with the scene Helpful documentation allows for an exact re-celebration, for instance a forensics team.

 Authorized Obligations

 The investigator need to perform a variety of authorized responsibilities in relation to past operate. Based mostly on their investigation, criminal offense scene investigators enable lawyers together with other lawful officials prepare felony proceedings. They Ordinarily fulfill to elucidate their official stories and also the proof, ensuring It can be recognized. Investigators are also referred to as on to testify in court, where by They’re the foremost authority on what was uncovered around the scene and what conclusions had been drawn.

 They have to be capable to describe exactly what the evidence indicates and why selected conclusions look compelling depending on investigation. Criminal offense scene investigators have to also be accustomed to National and condition laws and with relevant situation law to put the evidence in viewpoint.

 Proof Selection

 As soon as the scene continues to be secured, surveyed and documented, the crime scene investigator prospects an energy to gather pertinent evidence. This method is usually gradual and requires a substantial amount of persistence, as well as the capacity to successfully talk and collaborate with Many others. An ability to adequately and delicately deploy tools is paramount here. Evidence, for instance content articles of clothing hair, nail clippings and fiber samples, has to be collected in such a fashion that its integrity is preserved. Labeled and sealed pouches sustain the integrity with the proof plus the chain of custody. The investigator is also accountable for preserving the integrity on the criminal offense scene by roping off the area, trying to keep witnesses from tampering with proof and generating spots wherever evidence was gathered.

 Research

 The initial search, also called scene recognition, is the very first walkthrough that or crime scene investigator requires. On the main assessment, the criminal offense scene investigator develops a technique to solution the scene and apprehend proof. This could consist of factors including what directing to go in, prioritizing proof that might disappear or be harmed; and analyzing what devices and resources are needed to efficiently get inventory of your situation. The crime scene investigator can assemble and direct the crew to research the scene and collect proof. Murder scenes, such as, may possibly have to have investigators to gather blood and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery may perhaps need fingerprints, from points of entry along with other surfaces the burglar might have touched.

 Samples of ICTs used by the C I D

 In fashionable situations, policing continues to be finished with the usage of technological merchandise to enable them carryout their pursuits with the ease and for successful and economical services shipping and delivery. ICTs. refer to systems that give access to data, by means of telecommunication which has similarities to details know-how (I T), but listed here aim is totally on conversation systems. This incorporates the web, wi-fi networks, cellular phones and also other interaction media The subsequent details conversation systems are utilized by the CID of your Sierra Leone law enforcement

 • Shut-Circuit television (CCTV): to monitor situations/ happenings in their regions of responsibilities and to be used as pictorial/ visual evidence in courtroom and for records purposes.

 • Electronic Cameras: these are definitely used to acquire snap photographs of allow helpful and successful investigations with real proof to get tendered in court as evidence.

 • Drivers: these are typically used to help save/continue to keep useful specifics of an investigation for example progress reviews, abstract reports, summary of proof, and proceedings/rulings a few issue.

 • Photo Copiers: They’re primarily utilized to copy reviews together with other documents to be distributed to various authorities anxious for their personalized directives and needed motion.

 • Scanners: these are most common now as a result of terrorist threats and may be used for people, automobiles and for baggage’s as a way to detect / stop criminal offense along with the panic of criminal offense and to revive assurance from the populace. It may be used to detect any offensive objects/ weapons and to avoid any mishap.

 • Computer systems: at the moment are commonly employed to investigate prison throughout the world. With the help of desktops, the Interpol can observe criminals from each continent and the different police headquarters can liaise with one another to acquire the desired consequence. Also, could computing has long been much influential investigations to be able to Track down the where about of criminals and to track their functions/steps and accomplices.

 Complications related to the use of ICTs and data shipping on the CID during the Sierra Leone Police.

 • Electrical power Challenges: Lack of reliable and cost-effective energy is the best challenge in building a computing infrastructure for prison information (or every other application that make a difference). The overwhelming majority of felony investigation facilities from the criminal investigation Division have no key electricity and, where by readily available, these types of electric power is usually incredibly unreliable or so unstable that it poses a threat to unprotected Digital tools.

 • Environmental Difficulties: The Bodily natural environment in Sierra Leone and in many other regions inside the region is characterised by some mixture of warmth, dust and humidity, Each individual of and that is a dilemma for standard desktops. Superior pace Central Processing Units deliver great quantities of warmth that, if not appropriately dissipated, reduces functionality or can render these devices in operable. Dust threatens sensitive electronics by shorting circuits and impeding airflow and warmth dissipation. Humidity results in condensation corrosion and in many cases mould, all of which could bring about electrical difficulties and possibly shorten machines lifespan.

 • Connectivity Challenges: Deficiency of very affordable connectivity and bandwidth in the main obstacle to various of quite possibly the most promising felony investigation programs in the CID, such as training initiatives and also other actual- time assistance Lack of connectivity also complicates additional essential initiatives to gather and analyse legal details.

 CONCLUSION

 It is ever more obvious that information and facts may be the life blood on the CID technique. Precise, timely and obtainable criminal offense facts strengthens basically each individual A part of the technique, from coverage earning, to logistic and instruction. In distinction, inefficient crime data devices have problems with an information anemia that weakens the procedure.